In most of the cases, the pregnancy diagnostic is established easily.
There are situations though when, at the beginning of the gestation period, we must do extra investigations in order to establish the diagnostic.
Based on their importance, the pregnancy signs are divided in to
- Presumption Signs
They can be subjective, objective and of laboratory.
The presumptive signs of pregnancy
Amenorrhea is an important sign at a healthy, young woman, with a normal sexual life and a menstruation which comes regularly, each month.
Generally, the woman may consider herself pregnant from the moment her menstruation does not appear anymore.
It must be specified though, the fact that at twenty five percent of the women, the menstruation can continue under the form of a small bleeding, that appears either at the normal date of the period, either at a date corresponding to the egg’s implantation, producing confusion even at the more trained women.
Also, the amenorrhea is present in the extra-uterine pregnancy, in climax or in the case of the apparition of some hormonal disorders.
The neurovegetative disorders:
Nauseas, morning sickness, sialorrhoea (abundant salivation), modifications of the appetite and taste, psycho-affective and behavior modifications (fatigue, somnolence, bizarre disorders in taste and smell); sensorial disorders, such as the olfactory, gustative, visual.
Changes in breasts:
The breasts’ modifications by the growth in volume, they grow in weight, become more sensitive, more painful at touch and have an increased sensitivity of the nipple; the nipple and the halo are pigmenting; appears the venous network Haller and the Montgomery tubers; around the halo lies pigment, forming the secondary halo.
The pollakiuria, polyuria, constipation and gaining weight, constantly, completes the tableau of the symptoms mentioned above. Also appear objective signs, like: the pigmentation of the teguments and mucous, increased leucorrhea, the varicose and hemorrhoids.
The signs of probability
The growth in volume of the abdomen (in report with the age of the pregnancy) is due to the growth of the dimensions of the uterus, pregnant, with 4 centimeters a month, of its shape and consistence.
In the first half of the pregnancy the increase in volume of the abdomen is obvious especially at the skinny women;
it is obvious, also, toward the end of the pregnancy period.
Signs of certitude
Listening to the beats of the fetal cord (BCF). The fetal cord beats with a rhythm of 120 – 150 beats per minute into a point of maximum perception and varies based on
- age of the pregnancy
- the variety of position of the fetus
- the report of the presentation with the superior extremity
- the amount of amniotic liquid etc.
In the situation of a thin abdominal wall and the anterior position variety, the BCFs can be listened from the seventeenth or eighteenth month.
Until five months, being hard to apprehend through stetho-acoustic usual means, these accentuate through the ultrasonic capture phenomenon.
The modifications of frequency under 100 per minute or over 150, as well as the intensity and rhythm, attests the presence of a fetal distress, being an alarm sign.
The perception of the active moves is earlier at multipaires (the 16th week of gestation) and later at the firstpaires (the 18th week of the pregnancy). The moves are perceived with a variable intensity, from a small vibration in the first months, to the clear moves in the last months of pregnancy.
The presence of the fetus can be proved, in the case of starting pregnancy also through a series of laboratory tests (diagnostic tests of the pregnancy) like:
- The Galii-Mainini reaction
- The immunological pregnancy test (Romanian product) etc.
As an example, the Pregnostisec test pays optimal results at 12 days of absence of the menstruation (amenorrhea), but at request it can be made even after 5 days of amenorrhea. It is a test that is made easily, fast and simple. At a greater age of the pregnancy, it is
accentuated by the fetal electrocardiography and radiological exploration of strict necessity toward the end of the pregnancy.
The ultrasound, modern investigation painless perfectly harmless for the mother and the fetus permits obtaining, with the aid of the sound wave, of an image similar to the radiography.
With its aid we can establish the diagnostic of intrauterine pregnancy, unique or multiple, molar, ectopic or stopped in evolution, the incomplete abortion, as well as the gestational age, the localization of the placenta, the amount of amniotic fluid, the confirmation of the viability of the fetus, tracking some congenital anomalies.
Establishing the age of the pregnancy and the probable date of birth
The gestation period is 280 days or 40 weeks. The age of the pregnancy is calculated based on:
- The date of the pollinator coitus offers a greater precision, but it is hard to remember. At that date are added 280 days or forty weeks.
- The date of the last menstruation. To this are added ten days and then nine months (UM example-10th of January + 10 days=20th of January; + 9 months or dropping 3 months form 12=20th of October);
- The height of the uterine bottom represents the distance between the uterine bottom and the superior margin of the pubic symphysis. The value is divided by four, and at the result is added a unit.
The result obtained offers the age of the pregnancy in months (for example the distance is thirty-two centimeters; 32/4=8; 8+1=9 months).
- The date of the first fetal moves.
It is considered that the first moves appear at four months at multipair and four and a half months at firstpair.
The probable date of the birth is established by calculating the age of the pregnancy according to the data mentioned above to which is added the number of days (weeks, months) until the pregnant woman fulfils 280 days (forty weeks or nine months). (For example-the first day of the last menstruation April first; the first fetal moves=the fifth of August; the probable date of birth=the seventh of January).